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    Contents • • • • • • • • History [ ] Name of Pen is derived from the term 'पेणे' or 'Pene', which means 'A place to rest'. Although no one is certain about the origin of Pen, historians think it probably dates back to the times of. Due to its vantage location, Pen developed as a port city (present day Antora port was commonly referred as 'Pen Port'), with trade links as far as. It had a very prosperous marketplace where exchange of goods to and from took place. The Kolaba District Gazettee gives Pen's history as follows “ In historical times Pen was under rule of the of from 9th to the 12th Century and subsequently it passed under the control of the Yadavas. When was sent against, a detachment of the army had been kept at Pen but it was subsequently routed by him., the wife of, the hero of. In 1819 the easy communication with Bombay and with the by the made Pen an important centre.

    Pen

    Its chief prosperity lay in its salt beds. There was a considerable export of rice to. A number of carved stones about the town appear to belong to an unusually large temple of about the thirteenth or fourteenth century. ” During the period of shilahar kings, many temples of goddesses were built, including Jagdumba of Vashi.

    In the period of, grand temples of, like Rameshwar(रामेश्वर), Pataneshwar(पाटणेश्वर), Goteshwar(गोटेश्वर) and Vyaghreshwar(व्याघ्रेश्वर)were constructed In Shivaji era, Shayistekhan's raid on led to major fights in Pen taluka between Moghals and Marathas. Initially moghal army led by Sardar Taherkhan occupied Pen's fort of Mahalmeera and looted surrounding villages, which included desecration of grand temple of Goteshwar.

    Shivaji's army fought back with vengeance. They defeated Kartalabkhan in nearby Umbarkhind and officer Balakhi, near Ratangad.

    Stronghold of Mahalmeera was also taken back on 27 February 1662 and the following day, after a valiant struggle, Pen's Bastion (presently, the site of Tehsil office) was secured by Shivaji's army. In this conquest, Sardar Vaghoji Tupe fought mesmerizing battle against equally skillful moghal officer but at the crucial moment, Tupe dealt a decisive blow which killed the officer and ensured Maratha victory. Vaghoji was also critically injured and died soon afterwards.

    Shivaji Maharaj himself visited Pen on two occasions, on 6 August 1668 and 11 May 1674. Geography [ ] Pen town is located at 18°40'.N, 73°05' E, on the outskirts of. It gained prominence in ancient times due to vantage location on trade routes to, proximity to both & and its central position in the Raigad District.

    It lies on the bank of Bhogavati creek about 16 km from its mouth. Pen county has total area of 199.6 sq. Miles and area of Pen City is 6.75 sq.miles. There are total of 171 villages and four administrative divisions in Pen County.

    Geographically, Pen County can be divided in two separate areas: Pen East: It is hilly and sparsely populated area. Most of it is covered by jungle, which is very pristine and beautiful. Pen West: It is mostly flat and densely populated area surrounded by Dharamtar and other small creeks.

    Much of it is 'Kharland' (hub of Salt production), acclaimed from sea by centuries old seawalls. Pen City is located at the junction: surrounded by hills on one side and flatland on the other side. Important villages/town in the county are: • Vadkhal - Major junction on Mumbai-Goa Highway. • Gagode - Birthplace of Bharatratna Acharaya. • Vashi - It is hub of rice and salt production. It has a very famous Jagdumba Mata Devi Mandir, Kuldaivat of 18 villages and a site of huge 'Jatra' annually. • Vadhav-Village is famous for Veerabhadra Mandir.It is the first Mandir of in entire.

    Village is also famous for Bahiri Dev's yatra which is held annually. • Mothebhal-Village is famous for hanuman Mandir. Village is also famous for hanuman jayanti which is held annually.

    • Varsai- Large village in Pen East • Sanksai- It has a very ancient fort and former capital of Pen area. • Pabal - Village in a pristine valley • Dadar - It has a very peculiar geography, an island village surrounded by creeks from all sides.

    • Rave - It is also an island village surrounded by creeks from all sides and second largest village by population and famos for Raibadevi Yatra. • Mahalmeera - site of an ancient temple of Shiva • Dharamtar - Major Port • Kharoshi - Village is famous for KELAMBADEVI MANDIR - a famous temple in Navi Mumbai and Raigad • Gadab - village where Gandhiji visited during Dandi March • Pandapur - Konkan railway has railway station at Kasu near Pandapur. • Balavali- It is hub of rice and vegetabale,Ramnavami yarta. • Jite - village near Panvel Goa highway. Near railway station Jite.

    Demographics [ ]. Synagogue, the Beth-Ha-Elohim The Pen Municipal Council has population of 37,852 of which 19,257 are males while 18,595 are females as per report released by Census India 2011. Population of Children with age of 0-6 is 3910 which is 10.33% of total population of Pen (M Cl). In Pen Municipal Council, Female Sex Ratio is of 966 against state average of 929. Moreover, Child Sex Ratio in Pen is around 911 compared to Maharashtra state average of 894. Literacy rate of Pen city is 91.40% higher than state average of 82.34%. In Pen, Male literacy is around 93.91% while female literacy rate is 88.82%.

    Traditionally, Pen city was populated by Agri, Brahmins and merchant's community as it was center of culture, education and trade. But now, city of Pen has become a beautiful amalgam of diverse castes and religions, co-existing peacefully, side by side. In the olden days, Pen was recognised primarily as a Chitpavan Brahmin dominated village but Nowadays all Pen tehsil dominated.

    Agri community dwells in flatlands of Pen West, Hinterlands of Pen South-East are sparsely populated by tribal Katkari and Thakurs Pen has a small community, the. The community has a the Beth-Ha-Elohim. Population of Pen county is 1,76,681 as per 2001 census. Development and Economy [ ]. A clay murti, worshipped during festival.

    People in the Pen city are employed in various sectors such as trade/business, education, banking, industries, services, papad making (women's co-operatives) and most importantly, idol making! Most villagers are dependent for livelihood on Paddy farming in monsoon. Various vegetables are also grown as by-products, especially in eastern part of the county.

    The industrial belt in the western part of the county is causing a major problem of pollution in surrounding rural areas, creating health problems and reducing crop yields. Was promoting a Maha Mumbai Special Economic Zone, located around the town. A study conducted by Citizen's Research Collective on SEZ has called the Maha Mumbai Special Economic Zone a Special Exploitation Zone Land owners resisted the purchase of their land for the purpose and following a historic referendum on the issue, SEZ was cancelled. Land prices are soaring and economy is growing rapidly but there are some serious concerns about uneven and unjust development. • Ganesh Idols Pen is very famous for its Ganesh Idols which are used widely for the 'Ganesh Festival'. Many of Ganesh Idols in Mumbai are brought from Pen. There are multiple lanes [termed as 'Ali'] which consist only of such Idol Making craftsmen.

    Going through these lanes one can see the whole process of developing Ganesh Idols. Chat For. Number of Ganesh Idols are now even exported to the Marathi population in the US.

    • Papad Business Women in Pen are occupied in the domestic business of preparing ' पोहे' or 'Pohe' (flattened rice) and Papad. Significance of Papad business is that this business is women dominated business. Number of women workers are significantly high. There are hardly any male worker working in the Papad business. Moreover, owner of these papad business are women.